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William and Mary (1690-1725)

William and Mary is a European influenced style, named after the reign of William and Mary of England (1689-1694). William and Mary has Dutch and Chinese influences. It is characterized by trumpet turned legs terminating in a ball or Spanish foot, padded or caned chair seats, and Oriental lacquerwork.



Appearance
Graceful and Refined - Elegant Appearance.

(Federal style shown)

Chair Arms
Contoured - Arms curve inward.
Straight - Arms are straight and perpendicular to the chair.

Chair Back Material
Cane - Woven rattan.
Upholstered - Cushioned and fabric covered.
Wood - Solid wood, horizontal slats, vertical slats, or vertical splats.

Chair Back Shape
Banister - Three to six vertical turned slats in the shape of a baluster, flat on the front and round on the back.
Stile and Panel - Wood or cane back panel framed between two straight or turned stiles.

Chair Leg
Cabriole - Curved leg in the shape of an animal's leg. The cabriole leg increased the stability of seating pieces and reduced the need for underbracing.
Elaborate Turning - Turned leg with multiple types of turnings.
Round - Round, usually shaped or turned leg.
Straight - Straight leg, vertical to chair seat.

Chair Seat Material
Cane - Woven rattan.
Leather - Animal hide.
Rush - Woven rush.
Upholstered - Cushioned and covered with fabric.

Chair Seat Shape
Square - Square shaped seat.

Drawer Pull
Ring Pull with Round Back Plate - Ring pull attached by a knob to a circular back plate.
Tear Drop - Tear-drop shaped pull attached by a knob to a back plate. The back plate is usually circular, oval, or diamond shaped.
Turned Wooden Knob - Elongated, turned wooden knob, often 3 inches long and 1.25 inches in diameter.

Fabric
Chintz - Plain woven sometimes glazed cloth imprinted with patterns or designs, often floral with five bright colors.
Damask - Medium weight, glossy fabric with a reversible pattern and a figured intricate weave, often of linen, cotton, silk, or wool.
Needlepoint - A type of counted thread embroidery in which yarn is stitched through an open canvas weave.

Finish
Gilding - Gold leaf.
Lacquer - Tough, adherent finish that can be clear or pigmented.
Oil Varnish - Clear finish that emphasized the grain of the wood.
Paint - Opaque, pigmented finish that obscures the grain of the wood.
Wax - Paste finish over a sealer, stain, or bare wood.

Foot
Ball - Rounded ball-shaped foot.
Bun - Rounded foot, flatter than a ball foot.
Spanish - Elaborately carved foot, resembling a hoof.

Hardware Material
Brass - Yellowish metal made from copper and zinc.
Iron - Grayish-brown metal with a dull finish.
Silver - Gray-white metal, which can be highly polished.

Joint
Dovetail - An interlocking wood joint in which a series of wedge-shaped projections fits into a series of alternating grooves.

Line
Straight - Straight lines.

Motif
Acanthus leaf - Conventionalized leaf.
Floral - Flowers, such as roses, sunflowers, and tulips.
Oriental Patterns - Oriental figures, usually painted or lacquered.
Scroll - Form that resembles a roll of parchment paper.
Seaweed - Very delicate marquetry representing a marine plant.
Shell - Fan shaped sell.

Ornamentation
Carving - Cutting or chipping the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Inlay - Contrasting material set into the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Marquetry - Combinations of veneer used to create pictures or patterns.
Oriental Lacquerwork - A lacquer surface on which designs are drawn in gold or color; also referred to as Japanning or chinoiserie.
Parquetry - Combinations of veneer used to create geometric patterns.

Proportion
Medium - Moderate dimensions.

(Queen Anne style shown)

Underbracing
Moderate - Moderately proportioned stretchers

(William and Mary style shown).

Wood
Black Walnut - Dark brown American hardwood with a wide range of figures.
Ebony Veneer - Dark brown to black African hardwood with black stripes.
Fruitwood - Pink-brown American hardwood, including apple and pear.
Holly - Creamy-white American hardwood with a speckled grain.


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