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Furniture Styles
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Victorian (1840-1910)

The Victorian style draws its influence from gothic forms with heavy proportions, dark finish, elaborate carving, and ornamentation. It is named for Queen Victoria of England who reigned from 1837-1901 and was the first furniture style of mass production.



Appearance
Formal - Elaborately detailed, somber appearance.

(Victorian style shown)

Chair Arms
Curved - Arms curved outward.

Chair Back Material
Upholstered - Cushioned and fabric covered.
Wood - Solid wood, horizontal slats, vertical slats, or vertical splats.

Chair Back Shape
Balloon - Balloon-shaped chair back, rounded at the top and tapering to the seat.

Chair Leg
Elaborate turning - Turned leg with multiple types of turnings.
Restrained Cabriole - Cabriole leg with a rather straight shape.
Round - Round, usually shaped or turned leg.

Chair Seat Material
Upholstered - Cushioned and covered with fabric.

Chair Seat Shape
Curved - Circular or rounded seat.
Horseshoe - Horseshoe shaped seat with a rounded front.
Horseshoe Arch with Serpentine Front - Horseshoe shaped seat with a serpentine front.
Square - Square shaped seat.

Drawer Pull
Carved Wood (Ornate) - Carved wood handle, often in the shape of fruit or leaves. The size varies from 4 to 7 inches wide.
Glass Knob - Mushroom-shaped or round glass knob, often clear or iridescent.
Rosette - Round 2-inch knob in the shape of a flower, usually in brass or glass.
Wooden Mushroom-Shaped Knob - Mushroom-shaped wooden knob, often 1 inch high and 1.5 to 2.5 inches in diameter.

Fabric
Braid - Woven strips of cloth.
Hair Cloth - Stiff, open weave fabric made from animal hair, often camel or horse hair.
Needlepoint - A type of counted thread embroidery in which yarn is stitched through an open canvas weave.
Plush - Fabric with a deep pile, often velvet.
Tapestry - Heavy weight fabric with decorative designs.
Velour - Cloth with a short thick pile, usually made from mercerized cotton, silk, or mohair.
Velvet - Woven pile fabric that is soft and sturdy, often made of silk with blends of cotton, nylon, and rayon.

Finish
Gilding - Gold leaf.
Oil Varnish - Clear finish that emphasized the grain of the wood.

Foot
Ball and Claw - Carved claw grasping a ball.
Continuation of leg - Leg does not terminate into a foot.
Whorl - Small round foot with a coiled appearance.

Hardware Material
Glass - Transparent to translucent.
Wood - Various types of wood, carved or turned.

Joint
Dovetail - An interlocking wood joint in which a series of wedge-shaped projections fits into a series of alternating grooves.

Line
Cyma or S-Curve - S-shaped curve, partly concave and partly convex.
Straight - Straight lines.

Motif
Foliage - Leaves or vines.
Scroll - Form resembling a roll of parchment paper.

Ornamentation
Carving - Cutting or chipping the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Fretwork - Decorative carving or openwork with interlacing lines.
Inlay - Contrasting material set into the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Spindle - Turned pieces split vertically, often affixed to the front of case furniture.

Proportion
Heavy - Sturdy, thick dimensions.

(Chippendale style shown)

Underbracing
Moderate - Moderately proportioned stretchers.

(William and Mary style shown)

Wood
Ash - Whitish-gray American hardwood with similar graining to oak.
Black Walnut - Dark brown American hardwood with a wide range of figures.
Butternut - Medium brown American hardwood, often stained to resemble black walnut.
Maple - Golden to Red-brown American hardwood with a wide range of figures.
Oak - Gray-brown American hardwood.
Rosewood Veneer - Purple-brown South American hardwood with black streaks that can be highly polished.


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